### Chemistry in Everyday Life

goals
GIve reason: Antacid tablets are used by a person suffering from acidity.
The chemical substances used to bring down body temperature in a high fever are known as:
Which of the following are added to soap to impart antiseptic properties?
Which is the gas used for making vegetables and vanaspathi from vegetable oils?
In macromolecular type of colloids, the dispersed particles are themselves large molecules (usually polymers). Since these molecules have dimensions comparable to those of colloidal particles, their dispersions are called macromolecular colloids. Most lyophilic sols belong to this category. There are certain colloids which behave as normal strong electrolytes at low concentrations but exhibit colloidal properties at higher concentrations due to the formation of aggregate particles. These are known as micelles or associated colloids. Surface active agents like soaps and synthetic detergent belong to this class.
Critical micelle concentration (CMC) is the lowest concentration at which micelle formation appears. CMC increases with the total surfactant concentration. At a concentration higher than CMC, they form extended parallel sheets known as lamellar micelles which resemble biological membranes. With two molecules thick, the individual molecule is perpendicular to the sheets such that hydrophilic groups are on the outside in aqueous solution and on the inside in a non-polar medium.
In concentrated solution, micelles take the form of long cylinders packed in hexagonal arrays and are called lyotropic mesomorphs.
In an aqueous solution (polar medium), the polar group points towards the periphery and the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains point towards the center forming the core of the micelle. Micelles from the ionic surfactants can be formed only above a certain temperature called the Kraft temperature. They are capable of forming ions. Molecules of soaps and detergents consist of lyophilic as well as lyophobic parts which associate together to form micelles. Micelles may contain as many as $100$ molecules or more.